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A few quick questions

Pro Member First Officer
JTH First Officer

I have a few quick questions and I would be really appreciative if someone could help me out:

1) What is torque? Is this what causes my plane to veer to the side on takeoff?

2) When you land a small plane (Cessna 172/182), do you apply breaks straight away and hold them down, or do you just let the plane slow down itself and then apply breaks to slow it down further if needs be?

3) Is there some way to start at the gate when I create a flight with Flight Planner? I always end up starting lined up on the correct runway, makes it a bit unrealistic.

4) When I did Rod Machado's flight school for the Beechcraft Baron, he talks about opening the cowl flaps when the plane is taking off/climbing, and closing them when in level flight/decending. I notice a cowl flap lever on the Cessna 172/182 but nowhere in the training for that aircraft did it mention them. Do I just do the same thing as with the Baron?

5) Is it realistic to takeoff in a Cessna 172/182 and then use Autopilot to climb and maintain the assigned altitude and heading? I feel as if I'm cheating somehow by doing this, or is it what every pilot does?

6) What speed (in knots) should I move my Cessna around an airport in while taxiing, going to parking etc?

7) Is it always necessary to apply flaps and if so does how much flaps you use vary with the kind of landing? I ask this because in one of Rod's tutorials, he tells you to land with flaps at 20, whereas I'd have always thought you'd land with flaps at full.

Whew, there's a lot there! I really appreciate all the help I've got in the past, and thanks in advance for any help I get on this issue. JTH 🙂

13 Responses

Guest FEM Guest

1. Yes. As the prop spins to the right, the torque wants to twist the aircraft in the opposite direction. (I THINK) 😳

2. Tap the . key. Don't use the trigger on the joystick, that's the equivalent of jamming on the brakes hardcore in a real aircraft. Not realistic at all.

3. Yes. At the create a flight screen, you pick the airport, and then down at the bottom (I'm actually very suprised at the number of people that don't see this) there is a pull down menu to select your gate, or runway you want to be at.

4. In the sim, they really don't do anything that I noticed. Maybe you have to do them in the lesson, but I've never used them again after that.

5. Yes. It's not cheating. In some of the larger airliners, it's required to use the autopilot above a certain altitude.

6. 8-15 KIAS

7. Yes you always use flaps. Whether you use full flaps or not depends on the speed you want to land at. More flaps allows for a slower landing speed.

Pro Member First Officer
Martin (Blake14) First Officer

1. FEM got that right.
2. Most of the time you let it slow down, but it depends on the situation.
You can also slow down with the aerodynamic force of the elevator by keeping it up.
3. already answered
4. The cessna 172 doesn't have it. If any plane has it, you definitely need to open them on take off so your engine doesn't overheat. On the 172, u use a full rich mixture, except above 3000ft, to cool your engine.
5.It seems a little unecessary in a small trainer, but it is not unacceptable.
6. Speed of a small jog. The airplane is very unstable on the ground, so don't try to go too fast.
7. Slower landing speed, as well as allowing you a greater rate of descent on final if you're too high.

Pro Member First Officer
Ed Reagle (edr1073) First Officer

FEM,

I have seen that tab but never clicked on it. Now I know what it will do.

Thanks.
Regards,

Pro Member First Officer
JTH First Officer

Thank you FEM and Blake, your helpfulness never ceases to amaze me!

One final thing though, what exactly *is* torque?

Pro Member Captain
jarred_01 Captain

The definitions can be found at the below link, it doesn't explain it very well but it may help.

http://www.google.co.nz/search?hl=en&q=define%3A+torque&btnG=Google+Search&meta=

Pro Member Chief Captain
Tailhook Chief Captain

...or try this one ➡

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Pro Member First Officer
Martin (Blake14) First Officer

You can imagine torque as the air( or a big monster) grabbing your propellers. Since your propellers turn clockwise ( as seen from the cockpit), your airplane will turn to the left. The airplane is actually turning a little instead of the propeller.
I hope that helps!
Blake14

Pro Member First Officer
JTH First Officer

Hmmm... Blake that short explanation does make sense. Thanks!

Pro Member Chief Captain
Insight Chief Captain

here are some details taken from an article about flight and flight in games - torque isn't actually what makes you veer about apparently:

Prop wash:
We're all familiar with this one, though it's commonly wrongly referred to as torque. This is the effect that causes large amounts of yaw during takeoff. It's caused by the rotating column of air moving backwards behind the propeller. When this column reaches the vertical stabiliser it pushes it to the side, turning the nose of the aircraft in the other direction. The pilot should use rudder to control it during takeoff. In real aircraft there is often a "Takeoff" setting for rudder trim that mostly compensates for it. You can work out this setting for your favorite aircraft and use it in the game too if your ride is equipped with pilot adjustable rudder trim.

P-factor:
This is little understood by those not familiar with the intricacies of aerodynamics. It is caused by the propeller disc not being & right angles to the direction of travel. It is most obvious at high speed and high angles, so it's biggest effect will be observed on taildragger aircraft in the takeoff roll just before the tail lifts, as this is when the propeller is at it's greatest angle from optimum and some speed has built up. On an aircraft that has positive angle of attack, the propeller blades going down have a much greater effective pitch angle (angle of attack) than the blades going up and the result is more thrust on one side than the other until the aircraft returns to neutral angle of attack. This effect will cause the aircraft nose to tend to swing in the same direction as prop wash and should be countered in the same way.

Torque:
As the engine turns the propeller in one direction it tries to turn the airframe the other way. In real life sudden large throttle movements can make wingtips touch the ground in very powerful piston engine propeller aircraft, but in the game we don't have to worry too much until our wheels are off the ground.
Once we're wheels up torque try to make a wing dip. At low speeds pilots should avoid large aileron inputs to counter this, as the dipping wing already has an effective increase in angle of attack which puts it perilously close to stall. Aileron input will only make this worse and may well initiate an ugly low speed, low altitude stall if you're just wheels up or on final approach. At speeds close to stall speed some rudder input opposite the dipped wing will quite effectively bring things back in line.
Some aircraft are designed with one wing at a slightly greater angle of attack to provide more lift on the "dip" side, thus allowing the aircraft to fly with neutral aileron trim at cruise power. On those aircraft you'll find that one wing dips at low power settings and the other wing dips at high power.

Gyroscopic effect:
This is an odd one to get your head around, though if you've played with the toy gyroscopes that science teachers love you may be familiar with it. When you apply a turning force to the axis of a rotating mass, it responds by trying to turn at right angles to the direction of the force. The greater the force or the more suddenly you apply it, the more strongly the rotating mass tries to turn at right angles. The direction of the response will be left or right handed depending on the direction of rotation. The propellers of our aircraft are very large rotating masses.
What this means for us pilots in single engine (and some twins) is sudden pitch inputs are going to induce some unwanted yaw and sudden yaw inputs are going to result in unwanted pitch. Countering this requires several strategies.
1. Be gentle with pitch & yaw inputs
2. Learn which way your aircraft jumps and anticipate it with small amounts of countering input.

Adverse Yaw:
When you apply aileron input to initiate a turn, you cause the rising wing to generate more lift and the other wing less lift. As more lift creates more drag, the wing on the "up" side is now trying to drag the nose away from the turn. This reduces turn efficiency and overall drag, increasing the energy loss associated with turning. A small dab or rudder in the direction of the turn is all that's required. Once the turn is established and you've eased off on the ailerons you should find that the rudder can be returned almost to centre.

Guest

Autopilot required??? HAHAHAAHAHA. What planes are required to have the auto pilot on above certain altitudes?

Pro Member Chief Captain
Alex (Fire_Emblem_Master) Chief Captain

Heavy jets. Some airlines have flight procedures requiring pilots to activate the autopilot above certain altitudes.

Word for the wise also: Unless you're a coward, it's all fine and dandy to give yourself a name besides "guest"

Pro Member First Officer
JTH First Officer

FEM, who's that guy in your avatar/signature?

Pro Member Chief Captain
Alex (Fire_Emblem_Master) Chief Captain

That's Heino. German folk/pop singer. I'm waiting for my girl to upload the new pic of us that we have, then that'll be what I use. 😉

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