Fly Away Simulation
SearchSearch 

Types of Approaches

Pro Member Trainee
FireFight862 Trainee

Could someone elabortate on the types of approaches there are and how they are used with the GPS. Im pretty new to FS04.

Vectors? GPS? IRL? NBD?

Which direction do I use to approach I see a white line with dashes and sometimes a red line coming to and from the airport.

Are there any good digital enhanced panels I can download, Im still using smaller aircraft but would like a to have the addition of digital entries for headings and VOR. The default guages seem hard to get down to the degree correctly.

Pro Member First Officer
Pro-Sim First Officer

Hi,

The different types of approaches that you are seeing in the PROC page of the GPS represent the different approaches available at each airport.

There are 2 types of approaches' Non-precision approaches and Precision Approaches.

Precision Approaches are generally ILS approaches, where you'll be aware that the Localizer and Glideslope are used to provide the pilot with a precise path (laterally and vertically) on which to shoot the approach.

Non-Precision approaches are VOR, NDB, GPS and 'Visual Approaches'

(It get's confusing here as many pilots can be cleared for a 'visual' approach but may still use an ILS, if it is available on the Runway that they've been cleared on).

Generally, airports will have their ILS (if available) on the runway that from a Landing perspective runs into the wind. Aircraft land better when flying into the wind, so if an airport only has 1 x ILS, it is likely that they've put it on the runway that most often runs in to the wind....

Of course big airports may well have ILS on numerous, or even all runways.

So you could say that from an IFR perspective, the ILS would be "first choice"....

However, it may not always be the case that an ILS is available, or in some cases the opposite runway may be in use for landing, where no ILS is available.

In these cases a non-precision approach may be given by ATC.... It may be that there is a VOR station 12 miles out from the non-ILS runway and the approach charts for that airport and runway will give the instructions on how to use this VOR to get alligned ...... they may instruct something like..... Fly to TNT VOR then leave on the Outbound 090 radial... and in this case the Runway will be aligned with the 090 heading (radial) from that VOR..... The pilot would still need to manage their own descent down to the runway threshold on this type of the approach but the nav-aid that is used in the VOR .... so this type of approach could be called the "VOR Runway 09 Approach".

If that VOR wasn't there..... but an NDB was, then this could be an NDB Approach, whereby the instructions could be "Fly to NKL NDB and take heading 090 to the runway".

Taking a Heading from a NDB is less accurate than taking a Radial from a VOR ..... so this is even less of a precision approach.

GPS Approaches are newer and make use of GPS reference points (or "Fixes") to show the path to the runway... These are very different to ILS, VOR or NDB Approaches as their is NO ground based radio aid involved. Just a fictitious point in space that has been referenced on GPS.... GPS Approaches can be very accurate and are used a lot more in the US than they are in Europe.

Under ICAO, FAA and CAA regulations, GPS Approaches are still "non-precision" approaches but advances in technology lead many to believe that they represent the future for aircraft navigation.

SO ............................

The PROC page on the FS GPS panel is showing the different types of approches available for the given runways at an airport.

Many will look exactly the same on the GPS Map ..... as the intended flight path to the runway is indeed the same .... regardless of the tools used to get there.

So why do published VOR and NDB Approaches exist for Runways that already have an ILS ?

Generally in case of aircraft or ground based failures of the ILS systems... in the event of these an alternate method of approach can be adopted using the published VOR or NDB options.

Hope this helps

Pro Member Captain
Jon Van Duyn (JVD) Captain

There are the following:

Radar Approaches

It enables you to make an accurate approach to the runway.

ILS [Instrument Landing Sytem] approaches

It's to enable the pilot to approach the selected runway, adopt the correct glide path [slope] and land in conditions of low cloud and/or poor visbility.

The localizer is an instument devoted to ILS approaches.

Another good instrument is the ILS glide path transmitter [Middle marker, outer marker].

Anyway I have to get a few things done so i'll be back later with a bit more info.

Pro Member First Officer
Pro-Sim First Officer

That's a great photo in your Avatar picture, JVD....

Oops, where did that box go !

Thanks Pro-sim Guest

You've kind of answered one of my questions as well could you tell me in addition to that which you've just said.

Is it possible to obtain the heading out of a VOR/NDB to the runway without the use of the Landing plate for that particular airport? Or is this given somewhere in the GPS. It's just than whenever I use the GPS navigation hold switch in conjunction with one of these patterns I always seem to be heading slightly to the right or left of the runway - this could of course be because as you said in your last post they are "non-precision" approaches but I'd very much appreciate your input.

Regards

Tim

Pro Member Chief Captain
Matthew Shope (mypilot) Chief Captain

Pro-Sim wrote:

Hi,

The different types of approaches that you are seeing in the PROC page of the GPS represent the different approaches available at each airport.

There are 2 types of approaches' Non-precision approaches and Precision Approaches.

Precision Approaches are generally ILS approaches, where you'll be aware that the Localizer and Glideslope are used to provide the pilot with a precise path (laterally and vertically) on which to shoot the approach.

Non-Precision approaches are VOR, NDB, GPS and 'Visual Approaches'

(It get's confusing here as many pilots can be cleared for a 'visual' approach but may still use an ILS, if it is available on the Runway that they've been cleared on).

Generally, airports will have their ILS (if available) on the runway that from a Landing perspective runs into the wind. Aircraft land better when flying into the wind, so if an airport only has 1 x ILS, it is likely that they've put it on the runway that most often runs in to the wind....

Of course big airports may well have ILS on numerous, or even all runways.

So you could say that from an IFR perspective, the ILS would be "first choice"....

However, it may not always be the case that an ILS is available, or in some cases the opposite runway may be in use for landing, where no ILS is available.

In these cases a non-precision approach may be given by ATC.... It may be that there is a VOR station 12 miles out from the non-ILS runway and the approach charts for that airport and runway will give the instructions on how to use this VOR to get alligned ...... they may instruct something like..... Fly to TNT VOR then leave on the Outbound 090 radial... and in this case the Runway will be aligned with the 090 heading (radial) from that VOR..... The pilot would still need to manage their own descent down to the runway threshold on this type of the approach but the nav-aid that is used in the VOR .... so this type of approach could be called the "VOR Runway 09 Approach".

If that VOR wasn't there..... but an NDB was, then this could be an NDB Approach, whereby the instructions could be "Fly to NKL NDB and take heading 090 to the runway".

Taking a Heading from a NDB is less accurate than taking a Radial from a VOR ..... so this is even less of a precision approach.

GPS Approaches are newer and make use of GPS reference points (or "Fixes") to show the path to the runway... These are very different to ILS, VOR or NDB Approaches as their is NO ground based radio aid involved. Just a fictitious point in space that has been referenced on GPS.... GPS Approaches can be very accurate and are used a lot more in the US than they are in Europe.

Under ICAO, FAA and CAA regulations, GPS Approaches are still "non-precision" approaches but advances in technology lead many to believe that they represent the future for aircraft navigation.

SO ............................

The PROC page on the FS GPS panel is showing the different types of approches available for the given runways at an airport.

Many will look exactly the same on the GPS Map ..... as the intended flight path to the runway is indeed the same .... regardless of the tools used to get there.

So why do published VOR and NDB Approaches exist for Runways that already have an ILS ?

Generally in case of aircraft or ground based failures of the ILS systems... in the event of these an alternate method of approach can be adopted using the published VOR or NDB options.

Hope this helps

Gee, you sound pretty knowledgeble! 🍻

Don Wood Guest

To answer the last question, if you have a sectional or WAC chart for the area in question, you can use the compass rose marked on the VOR to observe the bearing to the airport.

The reason you are approaching the runway at an angle is because very few VOR approaches aim you directly at the approach end of the runway. They almost always aim you at the center of the airport.

The VOR approach is non-precision and is a method to get you safely from the VOR to a point where the airport is visible. From there, the pilot is responsible for aligning his/her aircraft with the selected runway which usually involves some turns. If the airport is not visible by the time the pilot reaches the minimum descent altitude, the pilot is obligated to execute the missed approach procedure.

Pro Member Trainee
FireFight862 Trainee

Ok sounds good.

When I hit procedures tab on the GPS, what am I looking for?

Select Approach? I usually am using the GPS as I havent got to instrument only yet.

Activate Approach?

Activate Vectors? Im thinking Vectors are guides, for me to use to get in line correct? Plus all the Keywords in Phoenetic Alphabet what do they stand for at the vector points Im guessing?

For Intrument Landing Im thinking I need to be at certain altitudes and speeds for a certain points on the approach How do I identify these and I know its pretty aircraft specific but where can I find these for additional aircraft other than just the info provided on the kneeboard?

Pro Member First Officer
Pro-Sim First Officer

Hi Tim, just wanted to say out of courtesy that I didn't reply as Don hit it right on the head ..... He'd dead right on the VOR Approach not necessarilly getting you directly onto the Runway Extension Heading.

My advice, when you're shooting these VOR Approaches (or any non-precision approaches) is to use them to help you get the Airport / Runway in sight, then get the AutoPilot out, and practice your hand-flying to get lines up, and on the right glide down !

Good luck.

All times are GMT Page 1 of 1

Related Questions